Handwritten, extensively annotated map of Central Africa showing lakes and rivers; includes text labeled “Note Bin Habib.”

One More Voice


Lost Voices from the British Empire's Archives

Bibliography: Primary, Contextual, and Critical Sources



Overview  top

The following bibliography compiles primary, contextual, and critical sources related to the One More Voice project. The bibliography is by no means exhaustive. If you know of additional sources we should include, please email us. Users may also want to consult Livingstone Online’s more general, but comprehensive bibliography.

Primary Sources mainly date to the nineteenth-century, include print and manuscript sources, and fall into one of two categories:

  1. Authored (broadly defined) by the historical figures that form the focus of our project; and
  2. Inclusive of reported speech and/or other summarized data from these historical figures.

Names and other information in square brackets have been supplied. The form of attribution used to identify authors of and contributors to the primary sources will continue to evolve as our project evolves.

Contextual Sources also mainly date to the nineteenth-century and include print and manuscript sources. These sources are presented in a separate section, however, because the sources provide useful contemporary information about the figures taken up by the One More Voice project. Each source includes a brief gloss (in italics) that indicates its relevant subject matter.

Critical Sources discuss relevant historical figures individually and in general and/or take up issues related to the study of relevant materials. The boundary between primary and critical sources can be gray as, for instance, some critical sources include critically-edited primary materials.

Site Illustrations are images that have been used to illustrate the One More Voice project site. These appear at the top of site pages.

Primary sources*  top

*Also see Archival Texts, Artifacts, and Book-Length Works for additional primary sources. Works listed on those pages are not duplicated here.

Aga, Selim. 1846. Incidents Connected with the Life of Selim Aga. Aberdeen: W. Bennett, Printer.

———. 1875. “A Trip Up the Congo or Zaire River.” Geographical Magazine, July, 203–7.

———. 2003. Incidents Connected with the Life of Selim Aga, A Native of Central Africa. Edited by Apex Data Services, Inc. and Elizabeth S. Wright. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

———. 2006a. “A Trip Up the Congo or Zaire River.” In Selim Aga: A Slave Odyssey, edited by James McCarthy, 229–39. Edinburgh: Luath Press Limited.

———. 2006b. “Incidents Connected with the Life of Selim Aga.” In Selim Aga: A Slave Odyssey, edited by James McCarthy, 201–28. Edinburgh: Luath Press Limited.

Anonymous, and [Mosheh]. 1856. “The Cape of Good Hope.” The Times, January 22, 1856.

[Baptista, P.J.], and [Amaro José]. 1873. “Journey of the Pombeiros: P. J. Baptista and Amaro José, Across Africa from Angola to Tette on the Zambeze.” In The Lands of Cazembe: Lacerda’s Journey to Cazembe in 1798, by Richard Francis Burton, translated by B.A. Beadle, 165–244. London: John Murray.

Bontinck, François. 1977. “Le Diaire de Jacob Wainwright.” Rivista Trimestrale Di Studi e Documentazione Dell’Istituto Italiano per l’Africa e l’Oriente 32 (3): 399–434.

———. 1978. “Encore Sur Le Diaire de Jacob Wainwright: Corrigenda.” Africa: Rivista Trimestrale Di Studi e Documentazione Dell’Istituto Italiano per l’Africa e l’Oriente 33 (4): 603–4.

Bontinck, François, and Koen Janssen, eds and trans. 1974. L’Autobiographie de Hamed Ben Mohammed El-Murjebi Tippo Tip (ca. 1840-1905). Brussels: Academie voor Overzeese Wetenschappen.

Bridges, Roy C., ed. 2007. “‘A Dangerous and Toilsome Journey.’ Jacob Wainwright’s Diary of the Transportation of Dr Livingstone’s Body to the Coast, 4 May 1873 to 18 February 1874.” In Four Travel Journals / The Americas, Antarctica and Africa / 1775-1874, 329–84. London: Hakluyt Society.

Casement, Roger. 1904. “Report on Visit to Interior of Congo State and on Condition of the Natives.” In Correspondence and Report from His Majesty’s Consul at Boma Respecting the Administration of the Independent State of the Congo, Africa 1:21–82. House of Commons. Accounts and Papers. London: Harrison and Sons for His Majesty’s Stationary Office. Text only version.

Dorugu. 1971. “The Life and Travels of Dorugu.” In West African Travels and Adventures: Two Autobiographical Narratives from West Africa, edited by Anthony Kirk-Greene and Paul Newman, translated by Paul Newman, 27–129. New Haven, CT; London: Yale University Press.

Farar, Carras, and Matthew Wellington. 1965. “David Livingstone: Two Accounts of His Death and Transportation of His Body to the Coast [Comprising] Carras Farar’s Story of the Finding of Dr. Livingstone in Central Africa [and] Account of the Life of Matthew Wellington in His Own Words, and the Death of David Livingstone and the Journey to the Coast.” Zambia Journal 6: 95–102.

Hemedi Bin Abdallah el-Buhriy. 1960. Utenzi Wa Vita Vya Wadachi Kutamalaki Mrima, 1307 A.H. The German Conquest of the Swahili Coast, 1891 A.D. Translated by J.W.T. Allen. Dar es Salaam: East African Literature Bureau.

Hendrickze, Hendrick. 1843. “Letter to John Philip. 18 April 1843.” Unpublished manuscript. CWM/LMS/South Africa/Incoming Correspondence/Box 19/File 1/Jacket D. University of London. School of Oriental and African Studies, London.

Holmwood, F., and [Majwara]. 1873. “Majwara’s Account of the Last Journey and Death of Dr. Livingstone.” Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society 18 (3): 244–46.

Kok, Adam. 1843. “Letter to James Read. April 1843.” Unpublished manuscript. CWM/LMS/South Africa/Incoming Correspondence/Box 19/File 1/Jacket D. University of London. School of Oriental and African Studies, London.

Livingstone, David, and Jacob Wainwright. 2020. “Field Diary XVII. 9 April-28 April 1873.” In Livingstone Online, edited by Adrian S. Wisnicki and Megan Ward, new version, second edition. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Also see the critical edition published by One More Voice.

Maimaina of Jega. 1971. “The Story of Maimaina of Jega, Chief of Askira, As Told by Himself.” In West African Travels and Adventures: Two Autobiographical Narratives from West Africa, edited by Anthony Kirk-Greene and Paul Newman, translated by Anthony Kirk-Greene, 131–201. New Haven, CT; London: Yale University Press.

Read, James Jr. 1838. “Report to the Directors of the London Missionary Society. 1838.” Unpublished manuscript. CWM/LMS/South Africa/Incoming Correspondence/Box 16A/File 2/Jacket C. University of London. School of Oriental and African Studies, London.

———. 1842. “Report to the Directors of the London Missionary Society. 1842.” Unpublished manuscript. CWM/LMS/South Africa/Incoming Correspondence/Box 18B/File 5/Jacket C. University of London. School of Oriental and African Studies, London.

Sechele, and David Livingstone. 2020. “Letter to Robert Moffat 1. [October 1852].” In Livingstone Online, edited by Adrian S. Wisnicki and Megan Ward, new version, second edition. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Also see the critical edition published by One More Voice.

Thomas, H. B., and [Carus Farrar]. 1950. “The Death of Dr. Livingstone: Carus Farrar’s Narrative.” Uganda Journal 14 (2): 115–28.

[Tippo Tip]. 1958. “Maisha Ya Hamed Bin Muhammed El Murjebi Yaani Tippu Tip: Kwa Maneno Yake Mwenyewe.” Translated by W. H. Whiteley. Supplement to the East African Swahili Committee Journals 28–29 (2–1): 1–141.

Wainwright, Jacob. 1872. “Speech Of Jacob Wainwright At Church Missionary Meeting.” Unpublished manuscript. Papers of the Gell Family of Hopton: Lenton and Related Papers, 25 March 1872–17 June 1874. Derby Record Office, Derbyshire.

———. 1876. “Letter to William Salter.” Unpublished manuscript. Cadbury Research Library, University of Birmingham, Birmingham.

———. 2020a. “Extract from Diary. May-June 1873.” In Livingstone Online, edited by Adrian S. Wisnicki and Megan Ward, new version, second edition. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Also see the critical edition published by One More Voice.

———. 2020b. “Letter to William O. Livingstone. October 1873.” In Livingstone Online, edited by Adrian S. Wisnicki and Megan Ward, new version, second edition. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Also see the critical edition published by One More Voice.

———. 2020c. “Extract from Diary. [November 1873-February 1874].” In Livingstone Online, edited by Adrian S. Wisnicki and Megan Ward, new version, second edition. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Also see the critical edition published by One More Voice.

Waller, Horace, [James Chuma], and [Abdullah Susi]. 1874. “Notes from Chuma and Susi on Livingstone’s Last Journey.” Unpublished manuscript. MSS. Afr. s. 16 / 4-5, no. 24. Bodleian Library, Oxford.

Weah, Bye. 1876. “A King Defending Himself from a Charge.” The Leeds Mercury, March 8, 1876.

Contextual sources  top

Anonymous. 1840. “Entertainment to Dr. Morison.” Aberdeen Journal, October 28, 1840. Contextual source: Selim Aga.

———. 1851. “Exhibitions: Panorama of the Nile.” The Lady’s Newspaper, January 4, 1851. Contextual source: Selim Aga.

———. 1867. “Monthly Summary: Liberia.” Anti-Slavery Reporter, October 15, 1867. Contextual source: Selim Aga.

———. 1874a. “Chuma and Susi at Newstead Abbey with Relics of Livingstone.” Unpublished photograph. MSS. Afr. s. 16 / 9, f. 13. Bodleian Library, Oxford. Contextual source: Chuma and Susi.

———. 1874b. “Chuma, Susi, Agnes Livingstone, Mr. Webb, Oswald Livingstone, Horace Waller, Mrs. Webb at Newstead Abbey about 1874.” Unpublished photograph. MSS. Afr. s. 16 / 9, f. 14. Bodleian Library, Oxford. Contextual source: Chuma and Susi.

———. 1874c. “Jacob Wainwright’s Home at Nasik.” Church Missionary Gleaner, June, 66–68. Contextual source: Jacob Wainwright.

———. 1874d. “East African Slave Trade Meeting in York.” The York Herald, October 10, 1874. Contextual source: Jacob Wainwright.

———. 1875a. “Jacob Wainwright, Dr. Livingstone’s Body-Guard.” The Juvenile Missionary Magazine, January, 14–16. Contextual source: Jacob Wainwright.

———. 1875b. “The War in Liberia.” The Times, November 27, 1875. Contextual source: Selim Aga.

———. 1876a. “[The Colony of Liberia].” The Times, March 7, 1876. Contextual source: Selim Aga.

———. 1876b. “[The Colony of Liberia].” The Illustrated Missionary News, July 1, 1876. Contextual source: Selim Aga.

———. 1909. “Opening of the Boys’ Primary School, Namirembe.” East African Standard, November 6, 1909. Contextual source: Ham Mukasa.

Barker, G. 1834. “Letter to the Directors of the London Missionary Society. 6 October 1834.” Unpublished manuscript. CWM/LMS/South Africa/Incoming Correspondence/Box 14A/File 2/Jacket B. University of London. School of Oriental and African Studies, London. Contextual source: Khoisan mission residents.

Brand, [?], Foreign Office, and W.D. Cooley. 1854. “Notice of a Caravan Journey from the East to the West Coast of Africa.” Journal of the Royal Geographical Society 24: 266–71. Contextual source: Arab traders.

Brode, Heinrich. 1907. Tippoo Tib, His Career in Central Africa, Narrated from His Own Accounts. Translated by H. Havelock. London: Edward Arnold. Contextual source: Tippu Tip.

Lash, Augustus Henry. 1874. “‘In Mid Victorian Days’: Dips Into The Diary Of A Deputation By The Rev. A.H. Lash For The CMS.” Unpublished manuscript. Papers of Augustus Henry Lash. Cadbury Research Library, University of Birmingham, Birmingham. Contextual source: Jacob Wainwright.

Price, Walter Saltley. 1874. “Jacob Wainwright.” The Times, April 22, 1874. Contextual source: Jacob Wainwright.

———. 1876. “Notes On The East Africa Mission Given By Rev Price To Rev Lamb And Captain Russell.” Unpublished manuscript. Rev. Walter Saltley Price: Correspondence and Memoranda about the East Africa Mission. Cadbury Research Library, University of Birmingham, Birmingham. Contextual source: Jacob Wainwright.

———. 1877. “Pictures from East Africa.” Church Missionary Gleaner 4 (41): 57–58. Contextual source: Jacob Wainwright.

Rampley, William Joseph Wright. 1930. Matthew Wellington: Sole Surviving Link With Dr. Livingstone. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. Contextual source: Matthew Wellington.

Critical sources  top

Awaaz Magazine. 2009. “Bombay: Refuge for Slave Africans.” The East African, October 12, 2009.

Bassett, Thomas J. 1998. “Indigenous Mapmaking in Intertropical Africa.” In Cartography in the Traditional African, American, Arctic, Australian, and Pacific Societies, edited by David Woodward and G. Malcolm Lewis, 24–48. The History of Cartography, Vol. 2, Bk. 3. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Bennet, Norman Robert. 1971. Mirambo of Tanzania, 1840?-1884. New York: Oxford University Press.

Boehmer, Elleke. 1995. Colonial and Postcolonial Literature: Migrant Metaphors. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bontinck, François. 1976a. “Voyageurs Africains En Afrique Équatoriale: I. Robert Feruzi.” Zaïre-Afrique, no. 107 (September): 411–24.

———. 1976b. “Voyageurs Africains En Afrique Équatoriale: II. Mbarak Bombay.” Zaïre-Afrique, no. 110 (December): 619–32.

———. 1977a. “Voyageurs Africains En Afrique Équatoriale: III. Uledi Pangani Alias Mwinyi Khamis.” Zaïre-Afrique, no. 114 (April): 223–42.

———. 1977b. “Voyageurs Africains En Afrique Équatoriale: IV. Uledi Mwana Sera.” Zaïre-Afrique, no. 118 (October): 495–514.

———. 1977c. “Voyageurs Africains En Afrique Équatoriale: V. Uledi Le Timonier.” Zaïre-Afrique, no. 120 (December): 627–40.

———. 1978a. “Voyageurs Africains En Afrique Équatoriale: VI. Mabruki Speke.” Zaïre-Afrique, no. 122 (February): 93–107.

———. 1978b. “Voyageurs Africains En Afrique Équatoriale: VII. Ferrajji Le Cuisinier.” Zaïre-Afrique, no. 128 (October): 495–509.

———. 1979a. “Voyageurs Africains En Afrique Équatoriale: VIII. Mwinyi Pembe.” Zaïre-Afrique, no. 132 (February): 107–18.

———. 1979b. “Voyageurs Africains En Afrique Équatoriale: IX. Hamadi Le Guide.” Zaïre-Afrique, no. 138 (October): 489–505.

———. 1979c. “Voyageurs Africains En Afrique Équatoriale: X. Chowpereh.” Zaïre-Afrique, no. 140 (December): 619–34.

———. 1980a. “Voyageurs Africains En Afrique Équatoriale: XI. Khamisi Stanley.” Zaïre-Afrique, no. 142 (February): 101–16.

———. 1980b. “Voyageurs Africains En Afrique Équatoriale: XII. Asmani et Mabruki Kisesa.” Zaïre-Afrique, no. 144 (April): 235–45.

———. 1980c. “Voyageurs Africains En Afrique Équatoriale: XIII. Majwara.” Zaïre-Afrique, no. 146 (August): 365–78.

———. 1981a. “Voyageurs Africains En Afrique Équatoriale: XIV. Sarmini Kacheche.” Zaïre-Afrique, no. 152 (February): 101–21.

———. 1981b. “Voyageurs Africains En Afrique Équatoriale: XV. Songoro Stanley.” Zaïre-Afrique, no. 155 (May): 317–27.

———. 1981c. “Voyageurs Africains En Afrique Équatoriale: XVI. Kamna, Kombo, Nubi.” Zaïre-Afrique, no. 158 (October): 513–27.

———. 1982. “Voyageurs Africains En Afrique Équatoriale: XVII. David Abdallah Susi.” Zaïre-Afrique, no. 162 (February): 99–118.

Brantlinger, Patrick. 1988. Rule of Darkness: British Literature and Imperialism, 1830–1914. Ithaca, NY; London: Cornell University Press.

Bridges, Roy C. 1987. “Nineteenth-Century East African Travel Records with an Appendix on ‘Armchair Geographers’ and Cartography.” Paideuma 33: 179–96.

———. 1998. “Explorers’ Texts and the Problem of Reactions by Non-Literate Peoples: Some Nineteenth-Century East African Examples.” Studies in Travel Writing 2 (1): 65–84.

Chatterjee, Ronjaunee, Alicia Mireles Christoff, and Amy R. Wong. 2020. “Undisciplining Victorian Studies.” Los Angeles Review of Books, July 10, 2020.

Clendennen, G. W., and D.H. Simpson. 1985. “African Members of the Zambezi Expedition, 1861-1864: A Prosopographical Foray.” History in Africa 12: 29–49.

Comaroff, Jean, and Comaroff, John. 1991. Of Revelation and Revolution: Christianity, Colonialism, and Consciousness in South Africa. 2 vols. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Coquery-Vidrovitch, Catherine. 1991. “The Process of Urbanization in Africa (From the Origins to the Beginning of Independence).” African Studies Review 34 (1): 1–98.

———. 2005. The History of African Cities South of the Sahara from Origins to Colonization. Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener Publishers.

De Souza, Eunice. 2008. “Bombay Africans.” Mumbai Mirror, October 23, 2008.

Driver, Felix. 2013a. “Hidden Histories Made Visible? Reflections on a Geographical Exhibition.” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 38 (3): 420–35.

———. 2013b. “Missionary Travels: Livingstone, Africa and the Book.” Edited by Justin D. Livingstone. Scottish Geographical Journal 129 (3–4): 164–78.

———. 2017. “Exploration as Knowledge Transfer: Exhibiting Hidden Histories.” In Mobilities of Knowledge, edited by Heike Jöns, Peter Meusburger, and Michael Heffernan. N.p.: Springer International Publishing.

Driver, Felix, and Lowri M. Jones. 2009a. Hidden Histories of Exploration: Researching the RGS-IBG Collections. London: Royal Holloway, University of London.

———. 2009b. “Hidden Histories? Local Knowledge and Indigenous Agency in the History of Geographical Exploration.” Paper presented at the 14th International Conference of Historical Geographers, Kyoto, August 23.

Earhart, Amy E. 2012. “Can Information Be Unfettered? Race and the New Digital Humanities Canon.” In Debates in the Digital Humanities, edited by Matthew K. Gold. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

Elbourne, Elizabeth. 2002. Blood Ground: Colonialism, Missions and the Contest for Christianity in the Cape Colony and Britain, 1799-1853. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Ewald, Janet. 1988. “The Nile Valley System and the Red Sea Slave Trade.” Slavery & Abolition 9 (3): 71–92.

———. 1990. Soldiers, Traders, and Slaves: State Formation and Economic Transformation in the Greater Nile Valley, 1700–1885. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.

Fong, Ryan D. 2018. “Empire.” Victorian Literature and Culture 46 (3–4): 665–68.

Gallon, Kim. 2016. “Making a Case for the Black Digital Humanities.” In Debates in the Digital Humanities 2016, edited by Matthew K. Gold and Lauren F. Klein. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

Gerzina, Gretchen H. 2008. Mr. and Mrs. Prince: How an Extraordinary Eighteenth-Century Family Moved out of Slavery and into Legend. New York: Amistad.

———. 2020. Britain’s Black Past. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.

Graham-Stewart, Michael. 2012. 4 Africa: Out of Africa. London: Michael Graham-Stewart.

Gray, John M. 1947. “Ahmed Bin Ibrahim – The First Arab to Reach Buganda.” Uganda Journal 11: 80–97.

———. 1949. “Livingstone’s Muganda Servant.” Uganda Journal 13: 119–29.

———. 1957. “Trading Expeditions from the Coast to Lakes Tanganyika and Victoria Before 1857.” Tanganyika Notes and Records, no. 49: 226–46.

———, ed. 1961. “The Diaries of Emin Pasha.” Uganda Journal 25: 1–15.

———. 1962. “Trading Expeditions from the Coast to Lakes Tanganyika and Victoria Before 1857.” Tanganyika Notes and Records, no. 58: 174.

———. 1966. “The Correspondence of Dallington Maftaa.” Uganda Journal 30: 13–24.

Hensley, Nathan K. 2020. “The Norton Anthology of English Literature, 10th Edition: Volume E, The Victorian Age. Reader’s Comments.” Nathan K. Hensley: Blog, July 21, 2020.

Jones, Lowri M. 2008. “Bombay Africans 1850–1910, Royal Geographical Society, 25 September - 29 November 2007.” History Workshop Journal 65 (1): 271–74.

Katjivena, Uazuvara. 2020. Mama Penee: Transcending the Genocide. Windhoek: University of Namibia Press.

Keegan, Timothy. 1996. Colonial South Africa and the Origins of the Racial Order. Cape Town; Johannesburg: David Philip.

———. 2016. Dr. Philip’s Empire: One Man’s Struggle for Justice in Nineteenth Century South Africa. Cape Town: Zebra Press.

Kennedy, Dane. 2013. The Last Blank Spaces: Exploring Africa and Australia. Cambridge, MA; London: Harvard University Press.

Levine, Roger S. 2011. A Living Man from Africa: Jan Tzatoe, Xhosa Chief and Missionary, and the Making of Nineteenth Century South Africa. New Haven, CT; London: Yale University Press.

Livingstone, Justin D. 2018. “Dissenting Traditions and Missionary Imaginations: Novel Perspectives on the Twentieth Century.” In The Oxford History of Protestant Dissenting Traditions, edited by Mark P. Hutchinson, V:377–415. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Loomba, Ania. 2015. Colonialism/Postcolonialism. 3rd ed. London; New York: Routledge.

Manning, Patrick. 1990. Slavery and African Life: Occidental, Oriental, and African Slave Trades. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

McCarthy, James. 2006. Selim Aga: A Slave Odyssey. Edinburgh: Luath Press Limited.

———. 2007. “Selim Aga: New Light on His Life and His Explorations in West Africa.” The Journal of the Hakluyt Society, July, [1]-[7].

Moynagh, Maureen. 2015. “Afropolitan Travels: ‘Discovering Home’ and the World in Africa.” In New Directions in Travel Writing Studies, edited by Julia Kuehn and Paul Smethurst, 281–96. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, England: Palgrave Macmillan.

Northrup, David. 1988. Beyond the Bend in the River: African Labor in Eastern Zaire, 1865-1940. Athens, OH: University of Ohio Press.

Price, Richard. 2008. Making Empire: Colonial Encounters and the Creation of Imperial Rule in Nineteenth-Century Africa. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Reid, Richard J. 2012. A History of Modern Africa: 1800 to the Present. Chichester, West Sussex, England: Wiley-Blackwell.

———. 2017. A Modern History of Uganda. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Renault, François. 1989. “The Structures of the Slave Trade in Central Africa in the 19th Century.” In The Economics of the Indian Ocean Slave Trade in the Nineteenth Century, edited by William Gervase Clarence-Smith, 146–65. London: Cass.

Risam, Roopika. 2019. New Digital Worlds: Postcolonial Digital Humanities in Theory, Praxis, and Pedagogy. Chicago: Northwestern University Press.

Roberts, Mary Nooter, and Allen F. Roberts. 1996. Memory: Luba Art and the Making of History. New York: The Museum for African Art.

Rockel, Stephen J. 2006. Carriers of Culture: Labor on the Road in Nineteenth-Century East Africa. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Ross, Robert. 2014. The Borders of Race in Colonial South Africa: The Kat River Settlement, 1829-1856. New York: Cambridge University Press.

———. 2018. These Oppressions Won’t Cease: An Anthology of the Political Thought of the Cape Khoesan, 1777-1879. Cincinnati, OH: University of Cincinnati Press.

Royal Geographical Society. 2007. “Bombay Africans.” Web. December 18, 2007–February 12, 2008.

Royal Geographical Society (with IBG), and Lowri M. Jones. 2009. “Hidden Histories of Exploration.” Web. 2009.

Said, Edward. 1978. Orientalism. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

———. 1993. Culture and Imperialism. London: Chatto & Windus.

Sheriff, Abdul. 1987. Slaves, Spices and Ivory in Zanzibar: Integration of an East African Commercial Empire into the World Economy, 1770-1873. London; Nairobi; Dar Es Salaam; Athens, OH: James Currey; Heinemann Kenya; Tanzania Publishing House; Ohio University Press.

Simpson, Donald. 1976. Dark Companions: The African Contribution to the European Exploration of East Africa. London: Paul Elek Ltd.

Special Collections, SOAS Library. 2014. “The Life and Afterlife of David Livingstone: The ‘Bombay Africans.’” Web. May 12, 2014.

Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty. 1985a. “Can the Subaltern Speak? Speculations on Widow-Sacrifice.” Wedge 7–8 (Winter-Spring): 120–30.

———. 1985b. “Three Women’s Texts and a Critique of Imperialism.” Critical Inquiry 12 (1): 243–61.

———. 1987a. In Other Worlds: Essays in Cultural Politics. New York; London: Methuen, Inc.

———. 1987b. “The Rani of Sirmur: An Essay in Reading the Archives.” History and Theory 24 (3): 247–72.

———. 1988. “Can the Subaltern Speak?” In Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture, edited by Cary Nelson and Lawrence Grossberg, 271–313. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

———. 1996. “Subaltern Studies: Deconstructing Historiography.” In The Spivak Reader, edited by Donna Landry and Gerald Maclean, 203–35. London: Routledge.

———. 1999. A Critique of Postcolonial Reason: Toward a History of the Vanishing Present. Cambridge, MA; London: Harvard University Press.

Thomas, H. B. 1951. “Jacob Wainwright in Uganda.” Uganda Journal 15: 204–5.

———. 1960. “Mohammed Biri.” Uganda Journal 24: 123–26.

———. 1962. “The Logistics of Caravan Travel.” In The Nile Quest, edited by Merrick Posnansky, 12–15. Kampala: The East African Literature Bureau for the Uganda Museum, Kampala.

———. 1964. “Note: Livingstone’s Muganda Servant – A Postscript.” Uganda Journal 28: 99–100.

Tuck, Eve, and K. Wayne Yang. 2012. “Decolonization Is Not a Metaphor.” Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society 1 (1): 1–40.

Vansina, Jan. 1990. Paths in the Rainforests: Toward a History of Political Thought in Equatorial Africa. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.

Wisnicki, Adrian S. 2019. Fieldwork of Empire, 1840–1900: Intercultural Dynamics in the Production of British Expeditionary Literature. New York; Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. Associated website.

Wisnicki, Adrian S., and Megan Ward, eds. 2017. Livingstone Online. New version, second edition. College Park, MD: University of Maryland Libraries.

Young, Robert J. C. 1990. White Mythologies: Writing History and the West. London: Routledge.

———. 2001. Postcolonialism: An Historical Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

Site illustrations  top

Anonymous. 1850. “Andries Botha” (1850s). Drawing. Morrison Collection, M1056. National Archives of South Africa, Cape Town.

———. 1900. “Jacob Wainwright with David Livingstone’s Coffin and Some of Livingstone’s Travelling Trunks on Board the Ship ‘Malwa,’ 1874; Inscription from David Livingstone’s Tombstone in Westminster Abbey; David Livingstone’s Funeral at Westminster Abbey, 1874.” Magic lantern slide. Library, LIB G/3, t0338. David Livingstone Centre, Blantyre.

———. 1933. “Semane Khama, Tshekedi Khama, and Councillors at Tiger Kloof.” Photograph. CWM/LMS/Home/Missionary Portraits/Box 12/File 34. University of London. School of Oriental and African Studies, London.

Erhardt, Jacob, Johann Rebmann, Augustus Petermann, C. Hellfarth, and [Unnamed Arab and African Informants]. 1856. “Sizze Einer Karte Eines Theils von Ost u. Central Afrika Mit Angabe Der Wahrscheinlichen Lage u. Ausdehnung Des See’s von Uniamesi Nebs Bezeichnung Der Crenzen u. Wohnsitze Der Verschiedenen Völker Sowie Der Caravanen Strassen Nach Dem Innern.” Mittheilungen Aus Justus Perthes’ Geographischer Anstalt Über Wichtige Neue Erforschungen Auf Dem Gesammtgebiete Der Geographie von Dr. A. Petermann 2: plate 1.

Livingstone, Charles. 2020. “Photographic Scene in an African Village” ([1857-1865]). In Livingstone Online, edited by Adrian S. Wisnicki and Megan Ward, new version, second edition. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

Livingstone, David, and [Informants from Zanzibar]. 2020. “Notebook III” (22 July-7 October 1871). In Livingstone Online, edited by Adrian S. Wisnicki and Megan Ward, new version, second edition. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

Livingstone, David, [Kirk, John], and [Two Unknown Writers]. 2020. “Fragment of 1871 Field Diary” (11 August 1871-9 September 1871). In Livingstone Online, edited by Adrian S. Wisnicki and Megan Ward, new version, second edition. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

Livingstone, David, John Hanning Speke, Alexander Keith Johnston, [Said Bin Habeeb], and [Unnamed Arab and African Informants]. 2020. “Annotations on Map from John H. Speke, Journal of the Discovery of the Source of the Nile (1863)” ([1869-1873]). In Livingstone Online, edited by Adrian S. Wisnicki and Megan Ward, new version, second edition. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

McKay, Claude. 1912. “Frontispiece Inscribed to Arthur Schomburg and Title Page” (early twentieth century). In Songs of Jamaica, frontispiece, title page. Kingston; London: Aston W. Gardner & Co.; Jamaica Agency.

Poulett, Weatherly, and [Jacob Wainwright]. 1895. “Dr. Livingstone, May 4 1873; Inscription Carved by African Youths on the Tree in Central Africa at the Foot of Which Livingstone’s Heart Was Buried” (c.1895-1896). Photograph. No. 561464i. Wellcome Library, London.

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