Tree segment with outer bark removed and a faded inscription on inner bark that begins “Dr. Livignston[e] / May 4, 18[73].”

One More Voice


Lost Voices from the British Empire's Archives

Critically-Edited Archival Texts



Overview  top

One More Voice publishes a selection of critically-edited and encoded archival texts (manuscripts and periodical press articles) alongside a set of curated historical artifacts. Each edited text and artifact is presented in a form ready for educational use, as noted on our home page. Additionally, the project helps contextualize these primary materials by providing an extended list of Victorian-era, book-length published works by non-European authors (mostly Anglophone).

The archival texts are available for viewing online in facsimile versions that approximate the textual, structural, and material characteristics of the originals. This strategy of representation underscores the fact that these are archival materials, but also seeks to establish some degree of continuity between the originals and their digital surrogates.

Each entry below provides a short biographical statement for the non-European individual of interest, a link to the corresponding Wikipedia entry (if available), full bibliographic details of each associated item published by One More Voice, the names of any British or other European co-creators, and a statement on material form that notes any layers of third-party remediation involved in producing the given item.

Users can also download relevant TEI XML files (and related XSL and CSS files) for all critically-edited archival texts from the One More Voice GitHub repo. If you use our critical editions in your own work, please credit our project as appropriate by using the citation template provided at the end of each item page.




Critically-Edited Archival Texts  top

Selim Aga  top
Selim Aga (c.1826-1875; Wikipedia) was a liberated slave and traveler from Kordofan in the Sudan who was educated in Scotland, accompanied British explorer Richard Burton as a valent on various West African journeys in the 1860s, and produced accounts of both his life and travels.

The Niger Expedition.” The Preston Chronicle and Lancashire Advertiser (September 25, 1858): 3.

  • Co-creator: Anonymous
  • original letters, as combined, edited, and published in a British periodical

Original Correspondence: West Africa.” Anti-Slavery Reporter (Feburary 1, 1864): 27-28.

  • Co-creator: Louis-Alexis Chamerovzow
  • original letter, as edited, contextualized, and published by a British writer in a British abolitionist periodical

Mohammed Bogharib  top
Mohammed Bogharib (dates unknown) was a liberated Swahili slave who became a trader and traveled widely in nineteenth-century East and Central Africa; although known for the violence of his followers, he notably assisted British explorer David Livingstone at different stages of the latter's final journey in Africa (1866-73).

History of Warori or Basango (Excerpt from David Livingstone's Notebook, [March 1866-March 1870]). July 19, 1869. Manuscript. 807. David Livingstone Centre, Blantyre.

  • Co-creator: David Livingstone
  • original narrative, as translated (possibly with the help of an intermediary) and written down in a notebook by a British explorer

Andries Botha  top
Andries Botha (dates unknown; Wikipedia) was a Gonaqua Khoe and appointed colonial official in South Africa's Kat River Settlement who served with British and Cape colonial forces against the amaXhosa in Hintsa's War (1834-5) and the War of the Axe (1846-7).

Introduction to Andries Botha (dates unknown), with a Discussion of His Letter to Sir Harry Smith, June 23, 1850. Jared McDonald, author.

Letter to [Harry Smith]. June 23, 1850. Manuscript. CWM/LMS/South Africa/Incoming Correspondence/Box 25/File 4/Jacket B. University of London. School of Oriental and African Studies, London.

  • handwritten copy of manuscript letter

James Chumah  top
James Chumah (1834-1906; Wikipedia), a traveler from the Yao of East Africa, was a liberated slave who accompanied Livingstone on his final travels and provided Waller with relevant information related to those travels.

To the Editor of the Times.” The Times (April 10, 1874): 10.

  • Co-creators: Horace Waller; Lindesay Brine
  • original letter, as edited and published (alongside another letter from a British sailor) in a letter by a British abolitionist in a British periodical

Apolo Kagwa  top
Apolo Kagwa (1864-1927; Wikipedia) served as the chief minister (Katikiro) of Buganda (now part of Uganda) for over thirty years; he was also a prominent intellectual, ethnographer, and author.

The Katikiro of Uganda and His Secretary.” In Sir Benjamin Stone’s Pictures: Records of National Life and History, by Benjamin Stone, 74. London; Paris; New York; Melbourne: Cassell and Company, Limited, 1906.

  • Co-creator: Benjamin Stone
  • verbal quotations, as included in a section of a book by a British author

Semane Setlhoko Khama  top
Semane Setlhoko Khama (1881-1937; Wikipedia) was the queen or queen mother (“mohumagadi”) of the BaNgwato people of the Bechuanaland Protectorate (now Botswana), where she played a key role in promoting Christianity, advocating for temperance and women's education, and expanding the role of women in the church.

Letter to A.M. Chirgwin. December 5, 1934. Manuscript. CWM/LMS/South Africa/Incoming Correspondence/Box 97/Semane. University of London. School of Oriental and African Studies, London.

  • typewritten letter with signature in author's hand

Lief Ben Saeid; Thomas Wogga  top
Lief Ben Saeid (dates unknown), an Arab trader, traveled in nineteenth-century East Africa. Thomas Wogga (dates unknown), an African traveler and former slave, traveled in nineteenth-century West Africa.

Notes on African Geography.” Journal of the Royal Geographical Society 15 (1845): 371–76.

  • Co-creator: James MacQueen
  • summarized data, as published in a periodical article written by a British geographer

Ncwadi  top
Ncwadi (dates unknown) was a nineteenth-century leader (“ngkosi”) of the amaNgwane, a clan of the Zulu in South Africa.

Gleanings and Glances” (Excerpt); “Letter from an African Chief.” The Illustrated Missionary News 28, no. 6 (June 1, 1894): 81, 93.

  • Co-creator: Anonymous
  • original letter, as edited and published in a British missionary periodical

NoSuthu  top
NoSuthu (c.1805-1887) was the Great Wife of Soga, counsellor to Ngqika (the chief of the AmaGcaleka Xhosa), and mother of six children, including the Reverend Tiyo Soga (ordained missionary of the United Presbyterian Church); after her conversion to Christianity, she lived in the Tyumi Valley at the Glasgow African Missionary Station run by Reverend William Chalmers.

Foreign Missions. Caffreland” (Excerpt). Missionary Record of the United Presbyterian Church, New Series, 5, no. 44 (March 2, 1874): 53.

  • Co-creators: Tause; John Cumming
  • original letter, as dictated to sister-in-law, translated by a British missionary, then published as part of an essay in a British missionary periodical

Ranavalona I (also Ranavalo-Manjaka I)  top
Ranavalona I (c.1778-1861; Wikipedia) was the queen of Madagascar from 1828-61 and known for policies that oppossed the influence of European politics and culture.

The Late Mr. James Cameron of Madagascar” (Excerpt). Cape Monthly Magazine 13 (March 1, 1876): 178–79.

  • Co-creator: Charles Frederick Arrowsmith Moss
  • funeral proclamation, as read by a representative and as transcribed, translated, and published as part of an obituary by a British writer in a British periodical

James Read, Jr.  top
James Read, Jr. (c.1811-1894), a missionary and evangelical campaigner in the Cape Colony as well as the eldest son of prominent London Missionary Society missionary James Read, Sr., was a vocal activist for Khoe civil rights and an influential figure in the establishment of schooling in South Africa's Kat River Settlement.

Introduction to James Read, Jr. (c.1811-1894), with a Discussion of His Letter to J.J. Freeman. May 23, 1850. Jared McDonald, author.

Letter to J.J. Freeman. May 23, 1850. Manuscript. CWM/LMS/South Africa/Incoming Correspondence/Box 25/File 3/Jacket D. University of London. School of Oriental and African Studies, London.

  • manuscript letter in author’s hand

Said Bin Habib  top
Said Bin Habib (dates unknown), an Arab trader, traveled widely in nineteenth-century East and Central Africa.

Narrative of Said Bin Habeeb, An Arab Inhabitant of Zanzibar.” Transactions of the Bombay Geographical Society 15 (1860): 146–48.

  • Co-creator: [British] Government
  • original narrative, as translated, written down, edited, and published in a British geographical journal

Lists of Headmen in Manyema and Urundi (Excerpts from David Livingstone's Notebook, [March 1866-March 1870]). July 4, 1869; [c.1869]. Manuscript. 807. David Livingstone Centre, Blantyre.

  • Co-creators: [Unnamed Arab and African Informants?]; David Livingstone
  • headman list and narrative data, as translated (possibly with the help of an intermediary) and written down in a notebook by a British explorer

Central African Geographical Data (Excerpt from David Livingstone's Annotations on Map from John H. Speke, Journal of the Discovery of the Source of the Nile [1863]). [c.1869]. Manuscript map. MS. 10740. National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh.

  • Co-creators: David Livingstone
  • data annotation, as translated (possibly with the help of an intermediary) and written down on a map by a British explorer

Saleh Bin Osman  top
Saleh Bin Osman (dates unknown), an Arab traveler, worked as a personal assistant to British-American explorer Henry M. Stanley during the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition (1886-89).

Testimony. November 12, 1890. Translated by Edward J. Glave. Manuscript. M055. Joseph F. Cullman 3rd Library of Natural History, Washington, D.C.

  • testimony in manuscript form, as translated and written down by a British explorer

The Story of My Life.” Translated by [E.J. Glave]. St. Nicholas: An Illustrated Magazine for Young Folks 18, no. 2 (May 1891): 795–98.

  • autobiographical narrative, as translated, written down, and published by a British explorer in collaboration with British publishers

Sechele  top
Sechele (c.1810-1892; Wikipedia), a leader of the BaKwena in southern Africa, played a key regional role in extending commercial routes, spreading Christianity, and forming the Bechuanaland Protectorate.

Letter to Robert Moffat 1. [October 1852]. Manuscript. CWM/LMS/Home/Livingstone Wooden Box/Item 71. University of London. School of Oriental and African Studies, London.

  • Co-creator: David Livingstone
  • original letter, as translated, written down, and annotated by a British explorer

Statement and Attestations. May 7, 1853; May 11, 1853; “Statement of Sechele, Paramount Chief of the Bakwaina.” April 30, 1853; April 21, 1853; “The Attack on Sechele,” December 1, 1852. Manuscript. CWM/LMS/South Africa/Incoming Correspondence/Box 28/File 2/Jacket C. University of London. School of Oriental and African Studies, London.

  • Co-creators: Samuel Edwards; Tom Thompson; Anonymous; William F. Webb
  • statement with two original signatures, as translated and written down by a British individual and atttested by another British individual; also appended: published version of same statement with an additional letter from a British hunter provided for context

Letter to the London Missionary Society. [1852-1853]. Manuscript. CWM/LMS/South Africa/Incoming Correspondence/Box 27/File 1/Jacket B. University of London. School of Oriental and African Studies, London.

  • Co-creator: Robert Moffat 1
  • original letter, as translated, written down, and introduced by a British missionary

Letter to Moshete. October 31, 1865. Manuscript. CWM/LMS/South Africa/Incoming Correspondence/Box 33/File 5/Jacket A. University of London. School of Oriental and African Studies, London.

  • Co-creator: Robert Moffat 1
  • original letter, as written down and translated by a British missionary

Tiyo Soga  top
The Reverend Tiyo “Zisani” Soga (c.1831-1871; Wikipedia) was the first ordained Xhosa missionary to the Xhosa people in South Africa; educated at Glasgow University and ordained in the United Presbyterian Church, he penned newspaper articles, letters, reports, and translations of The Pilgrim’s Progress and the Bible into Xhosa.

Jubilee of the Venerable Patriarch Brownlee.” Kaffrarian Watchman 1:82 (February 14, 1867)

  • Co-creator: Anonymous
  • original speech, as edited and published within an article in a British periodical

Tippu Tip  top
Tippu Tip (1837-1905; Wikipedia) was an Arab-African ivory and slave trader who traveled widely in nineteenth-century East and Central Africa; he played a major role in shaping the history of the region, supported the work of British explorers like David Livingstone and Henry Morton Stanley, and for a time served as Governor in the Stanley Falls District of King Leopold II's Congo Free State.

Tippoo Tib.The Times (May 17, 1887): 5.

  • Co-creator: Anonymous
  • Q&A with an anonymous interlocutor, as translated, written down, edited, contextualized, and published by an anonymous British writer in a British periodical

Jacob Wainwright  top
Jacob Wainwright (c.1851/52-1892; Wikipedia), a traveler and explorer from the Yao of East Africa, accompanied British explorer David Livingstone during the last two years (1872-73) of the latter's final African journey.

Addition to David Livingstone's Field Diary XVII. April 28, 1873. Manuscript. 360. David Livingstone Centre, Blantyre.

  • addition in author's hand to a manuscript diary by a British explorer.

Inscription on the Tree at the Foot of which David Livingstone's Heart was Buried, May 4, 1873. Photograph of original inscription. No. 561464i. Wellcome Library, London.

  • original inscription in author’s hand

Extract from Diary. May-June 1873. Manuscript. 801. David Livingstone Centre, Blantyre.

  • manuscript diary in author’s hand

Letter to William O. Livingstone. October 1873. Manuscript. 836. David Livingstone Centre, Blantyre.

  • manuscript letter in author’s hand

Extract from Diary. [November 1873-February 1874]. Manuscript. 833. David Livingstone Centre, Blantyre.

  • manuscript diary in author’s hand

Letter to Joseph Moore. May 23, 1874. Manuscript. Acc.12444. National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh.

  • manuscript letter in author’s hand

Letter to Joseph Moore. July 10, 1874. Manuscript. Acc.12444. National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh.

  • manuscript letter in author’s hand

Jacob Wainwright.” Wesleyan Juvenile Offering: A Miscellany of Missionary Info, no. 93 (September 1, 1874): 98–99.

  • autobiographical narrative, as published in a British missionary periodical

Thomas Wogga  top
See entry for Lief Ben Saeid; Thomas Wogga.


[Unnamed African Informants]  top
These informants, most likely from Manyema (today part of the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo), assisted British explorer David Livingstone during the latter's final travels in Africa (1866-1873).

Central African Fables (Excerpts from David Livingstone's Notebook, [March 1866-March 1870]). c.1868-70. Manuscript. 807. David Livingstone Centre, Blantyre.

  • Co-creator: David Livingstone
  • original stories, as translated (possibly with the help of an intermediary), edited, and written down in a notebook by a British explorer