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                Henry M. Stanley Esq.

private & important
from E J Glave

0002<This page is blank in the original manuscript.>

    (1) Narrated by Saleh Bin Osman

Jamieson was visiting "Stanley Falls"
for the purpose of urging Tippu Tib to
provide the carriers, which he had promised
to Stanley -       Upon passing through the
village of Wakumwa, Jamieson asked
the headman of the Zanzibaris, Hamadi
Bin Dowd
, whether it was really true
that the natives were cannibals & ate
each other? Of course it was perfectly
true replied the other! Thereupon
Jamieson gave the man Hamadi
some cloth to buy a young slave.
Presently he ^ (Hamadi) came back bringing with
him a young girl what he had
bought - Jamieson then ordered him
to hand her over to the natives &
tell them to kill, cook, & eat
her -   The Zanzibaris flatly
refused to do this and express’d
0004<This page is blank in the original manuscript.>
their disgust by going away, but Jamieson
himself took the girl by the wrist &
handed her to her savage executioners
She was stabb’d with a knife and
whilst the body was still quivering the
natives cut off the flesh from the
bones & having toasted it in sticks
on the fire they Eate it - During
the whole of the ^ ghastly performance
Jamieson sat down and made
sketches of it -     Jamieson was
accompanied by Muftwa his boy
Hamadi Bin Dowd and by Zanzibari
- Tippu Tib, who heard of this upon
Jamieson's arrival at the Falls, refused
to see him for 2 days, being too
disgusted to speak with him.
0006<This page is blank in the original manuscript.>
Upon Major Barttlots second visit to
the Falls - Tippu told him that he
did not know how to deal with either
Arabs or Zanzibaris & moreover if he
assumed such a dictative tone the
Tippu Tib refused to speak to him -
Major remarked to him "You can play
with Stanley as much as you like
but you cannot play the fool with
me -" You had better return to Yambuya
& send another white man here, you
only make trouble & you consider
yourself a "Sultan".     I can speak
with Stanley but not with you for
you have too big a head. - replied
Tippu Tib.

0008<This page is blank in the original manuscript.>
Some few weeks after the camp of the
Rear Column had been formed 3 Zanzibaris
, who had deserted from Stanley's Van[-]
, came to Yambuya and reported
to Major Barttelot that Stanley was
dead, & that the Major - being next
in command, was now their chief -
The Zanzibaris at Yambuya replied
that they did not believe it, saying "that
Stanley, with his big force, well armed with
plenty of rifles and ammunition and
a mzinja (cannon) they said; the natives
in that part of the country were
not capable of vanquishing such
an army -

A great deal of dissatisfaction
was caused by Barttelot giving these
three bearers of the news rice and meat
0010<This page is blank in the original manuscript.>
whereas Zanzibaris and Londanese
at Yambuya were being starved t
death, as they express’d it they could
not make out what kind of a
heart a man had who would starve
his own men & sumptuously feed those
who brought such news as the death
of Stanley and all his followers -
Major Barttelot tried to get men
from Tippu Tib through Maraja the
Londanese chief - Barttelot thought
Stanley was dead & he himself was
anxious to reach Emin & perform
the object of the Expedition -
He remarked to Maraja that
Ward was away, Troup had gone
home sick, he would send Bonny
0012<This page is blank in the original manuscript.>
home & taking with him only
Jamieson as white companion he
would cut his way to Wadelai.
The Major promised to give Maraja
too [ ] if he could succeed in
getting Tippu Tib to provide carriers.
- "We will then return Emin ourselves
& return home very big men - you
will be a big chief in Egypt and
I will be a general in England": said
the Major ---

-Salim Masoodi offended Tippu Tib
Major Barttelot by not interpreting
to his chief Tippu Tib any
insulting speeches which the Major
uttered - Salim preferred to keep
t himself any high-handed talk
& not aggravate Tippu Tib by repeating it.
0014<This page is blank in the original manuscript.>
67 Some few weeks after the camp
of the Rear Column had been formed
                        Zanzibaris who had deserted from Stanley
some 3 of the Arabs' fighting men came
to Yambuya and reported that
Stanley was dead & his whole Expedition
cut to pieces - whereupon Barttelot
sounded the call and told all the
men that Stanley was dead & he
the Major being next in command
was now their chief. - The
Zanzibaris replied that they did
not beleive it saying that Stanley
with his big force well armed with
plenty of rifles and ammunition
and a cannon (mzinja) - the
natives in that part of the country
were not capable of vanquishing
such an army

0016<This page is blank in the original manuscript.>

There was a large secret council
(shauri) held one night amongst the
Zanzibaris when the headman urged that
rather die of sickness & starvation it
would be ^ better to even steal some loads
of cloth and beads etc & make their
way along the path taken by Stanley
but, those willing to take these risks,
were in the minority and the majority
prevailed upon them to stay with their
white men whatever happened as they
had promised Stanley that they would
do so -

0018<This page is blank in the original manuscript.>

There was ^ one night hanging in the Cook's house,
a leg of a goat.     Manlidi Major
's boy crept round to this hut
at night and cut off a small piece
of the meat; whilst thus engaged Nubi
the Londanese guard saw him & threaten[ed]
to report to the Major if Manlidi did
not share it with him. Manlidi however
preferred to cut off another [      ][      ]
for the Londanese Nubi. But this
taste of fresh meat eaten raw only
aggravated the Londanese's hunger
and after the boy had gone he
took down the remainder of the leg
and ate it and afterwards hid the
bone in the straw thatching of
Manlidis hut - on the morning
0020<This page is blank in the original manuscript.>
there was a cry from the cook that the
meat was missing and Major Barttelot
sounded the call & had everybody in
line for the purpose of finding out
the thief; the bone was eventually dis-
in the thatch of Manlidis hut
but Nubi, the Londanese guard, admitted
that he was the culprit - and Barttelot
wish'd to shoot him, but Assad Ferran
pleaded on his behalf and finally
the punishment was altered to that of
flogging - he was to receive 300
lashes - but the man's back so
badly lacerated being torn into ribbons
by the lash that the total number
300 could not be given at one
time, it was then decided that the
remaining blows should be
0022<This page is blank in the original manuscript.>
when his present wounds had healed.
After a few days Nubi, dreading to
face a repetition of the inhumanity
he had suffered, took his rifle and
escaped into the forest, but a search
party was disorganized and he was soon
discovered and brought back to camp -
and the sentence of death was passed
on him. He was compelled to dig
his own grave. After which he was
lashed to a kind of cross and a file
of 15 Londanese soldiers fired simultaneously
at the wretch riddling him with bullets -
he was ^ afterwards buried in a deep vertical
hole his head being pushed down
first and the loose clay packed
in around him so that only the
feet show'd above the ground

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  After a delay of many months Tippu
finally supplied men - about 400 -
to carry the loads of the Rear Column
of the Emin Bey Relief Expedition - The
sacks of beads, bales of cloth etc were
at first much too heavy but all
were duly lightened and a great
deal of stores which could not be
carried, owing to there being an insufficient
number of men., were given to Tippu Tib
- Rice previously bought from the Arabs
at Stanley Falls was denied the
sick blacks of the Expedition but
now made a present of to Tippu
.       Tippu Tib cautioned the Major to be
very careful in his dealing's with the Manyema people
"they were not so servile or so devoted as the Zanzibaris
they were washinzi (bush people)["] said Tippu Tib -
"It is necessary to humour them and [      ] at all times
the greatest patience & tact in dealing with them. When they
are tired or sick you must attend to them & not abandon
them - If you lose your temper and beat them they
will all run away -"

0026<This page is blank in the original manuscript.>
"and do not in any way molest their
women as this is their most sensitive
point; The Manyema manyuema, when properly
treated, are brave and faithful "
A One of Tippu Tibs officers Mwini
was appointed by Tippu
to be the "mampara" (head man[)]
of the Manyema carriers - Tippu
told Barttelot that if he had
any complaint to make he was
to do so through Mwini Schumali
who was thoroughly conversant with
these people & wasould be thus able to settle
any disagreement more easily than
the Major himself.

Just before leaving Yambuya
Major Barttelot called together all
0028<This page is blank in the original manuscript.>
the Zanzibari Manyema headmen & told them
that he was about to start for
Wadelai & that he intended taking
another route which was a shorter
way to reach Emin than that
taken by Stanley -     Mwini
was excluded from this
council, altho Tippu Tib had
distinctly appointed this man to be
chief of the men supplied by Tippu
- This meeting between the major &
his headmen was held in secret
no other white men being present

When the rear guard, now
augmented by the men sent
by Tippu Tib, actually did leave
0030<This page is blank in the original manuscript.>
Yambuya Barttelot march'd ahead
with his compass in hand saying
that he himself would show the
way; but eventually after two or
three days, he lost the trail, left
by the vanguard, and was informed
of this fact by Mwini Schumali
; the major answered that he was
perfectly capable of piloting the
Expedition & ordered Mwini Schumali
to retire & bring up the rear -
Mwini Schumali then told the
Major that Tippu Tib had said
"that the Manyemas were to follow
in Stanley's path["] & when the Major
deviated from this the Manyemas
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were to return back, Tippu Tib
had said that "he had given
his promise to Stanley before the
British Consul and the Sultan
of Zanzibar and he did not
consider himself bound to supply
carriers for another whiteman's
personal Expeditions -   The object
of the rear column was to reach
Stanley and the quickest and
easiest way to do this was
to follow Stanley's road."

- Mwini Schumali told Major
that he had been appointed
by Tippu Tib to be chief of the
Manyema carriers supplied to the

0034<This page is blank in the original manuscript.>

Expedition but the Major, by
ignoring him, (Mwini Schumali)
as holding that position, had
loosened his command of the Manyema
and the prestige, which he would
have held if properly supported
by the Major, was lost - The Manyemas
seeing that Mwini Schumali was
not recognized by Major Barttelot
as their chief naturally doubted
his right to control them -

The third day Major Barttelot
allowed the Manyemas to lead
the Expedition headed by Mwini
; He himself the Major
0036<This page is blank in the original manuscript.>
remained in the rear to whip
up the Zanzibari porters, who
emaciated by many months of
hunger and sickness, struggled
slowly along the path - Several
of the Zanzibaris threw down their
packs & escaped into the forest
- In crossing a boggy stream Major
mounted the shoulders of "Hamadi
Bin Dowd
" but as the Zanzibari's
feet stuck deep into the muddy
bottom at each step he stumbled
about a little & the Major got
wet. - When they arrived in
the opposite bank the Major
flogged the man most unmercifully
0038<This page is blank in the original manuscript.>
and threatened to have him shot
next morning - as this threat
had been made before and had
also been carried out, the Zanzibari
Hamadi Bin Dowd, fearing death
escaped into the forest - and remained
- absent till Stanley returned to Banalya.
- When they arrived at Banalya
Abdullah Karonia, one of Tippu
's headmen
in charge of a slaving
gang of Manyemas, advised Barttelot
to camp just a little way off
as trouble was likely to spring up
between the forces of the Expedition
and the followers of the Arabs,
Barttelot was also urged to make
another camp on account of the
small pox which was very bad
0040<This page is blank in the original manuscript.>
amongst the Arabs at Banalya
; but Major Barttelot said he
intended remaining where he was.
at Banalya, he would stay there
until Jamieson, who had gone to
Kasango, should return, this he expected
would be in about 20 days. Bonny
also urged the desirability of
making another camp but the
Major decided to remain at Banalya -
despite the warning from his
headman & his sole remaining
white man. Mr Bonny - all of
whom suggested a new camp.
Major said he was the chief and
nobody had anything to say.

0042<This page is blank in the original manuscript.>

- Death of Major Barttelot -
- One morning at Banalya just before
daybreak Major Barttelot sent one
of his Londanese soldiers, Baithi,
to order silence in the camp as someone
was beating a drum and singing
in one of the adjacent houses -
Baithi approached the house of
Sanga whence the noise came and
learnt from Sanga's children, who
were sitting in the doorway that it was
their mother who was playing and
singing inside. Baithi told the
children to inform their mother
that the Major wish'd silence and
she was to make no more noise
0044<This page is blank in the original manuscript.>
the children however were enjoying the
wild music and did not inform
their mother of the Major's order -
; as the noise did not cease, the Major
sent his little boy Ludi to tell
them to stop the noise; but even
then the message did not reach
the mother's ears, as Sanga's small
boys' only laughed & clapped with
Ludi, who was one of their own playmates
& was about of their own age -
Ludi then returned to his masters
hut but the noise had not ceased
& the Major became furious and
told Ludi to return & tell them
that if the drumming and singing
0046<This page is blank in the original manuscript.>
did not cease, the Major himself
would come - whilst Ludi was on
this errand the Major had hastily
thrown on his clothes & now appeared
on the scene - He entered the house
where Sanga's wife was sitting, with three
of her female friends, drumming &
singing; pointing a revolver at the
woman's head he knocked her off her
seat and then kicked her in the
stomach and she lay on the floor
of the hut groaning in agony -
- The three women who were sitting
with her ran out & called to
the husband Sanga that Barttelot
was beating his wife - this man
0048<This page is blank in the original manuscript.>
arrived by the door at the back of
his house and seeing his wife groaning
on the floor grasped his stick but
catching sight of Major Barttelot
first the outside the house with a revolver
in his hand, Sanga dropp'd his
stick & took down his gun & priming
it fired and killed the Major, the
weapon was loaded with 2 slugs
one of which killed Barttelot & the
other seriously wounded the arm
of a woman who was standing near.

This threw the whole camp in an
uproar - Some of the Manyemas took
advantage of the tumult & excitement

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to steal some of the loads others remained
quiet, the Zanzibaris at first graspd
their guns and wanted to fight the
Manyema but Bonny interfered
and quiet was restored -

-Sanga ran away to the Falls -
and gave himself up to Tippu Tib
In the Evening of Barttelot's death
both Zanzibaris & Londanese danced
and sang & burned down the wooden
triangle in which they had so
often been lash'd & flogged; and
played the drum where the
whipping place once stood -

0052<This page is blank in the original manuscript.>

Jamieson hearing of the Major's death
repaired to Tippu Tib & demanded that
Sanga should be executed which was
duly carried out - The Arabs said
they were very sorry but Jamieson
remarked that "Major Barttelot
had killed himself"- one old Arab
Salim Masoodi stated that according
to their own custom Sanga ought
not to die - "a man who illtreats
another man's wife is liable to
death by the[ ] [  ]woman's husband
who however is not punishd
, the indignity offered to the woman
being sufficient reason to acquit him
0054<This page is blank in the original manuscript.>
this is the spirit of the Arab and
Swahili law, but the major being
a whiteman the law became in-

    After the Major's death the
whole Expedition became disorganized
& the Manyema's deserted on all sides
from Banalya, and when Stanley
returned he found Bonny the
sole whiteman in command
& a few wretched Zanzibaris who
were covered with sores & reduced
to mere skeletons by the many
months of illtreatment & hunger; not
one of them was able to carry a
0056<This page is blank in the original manuscript.>

Ludi Barttelots little boy was
suffering from a festering wound on
the leg which he had received from
a kick by the Major - He was going
to wash the Major's feet one day
and had taken off one sock and
boot but the water proved too
cold and Barttelot which resented
this by kicking Ludi with his heavy
boot cutting the boy's shin to the
bone, & making a wound which
the boys impoverished condition som
[      ] in festering sore from
which the boy eventually died.

0058<This page is blank in the original manuscript.>

The Zanzibaris & Arabs said that
had there been a man in command
at Yambuya who had exercised
due tact in dealing with the Arabs
and had that man been honest     of
purpose and capable of proving
that he was so - men to carry
loads would have been forthcoming
from Tippu Tib and the rear
column would have moved
soon after Stanley - But the Arabs
say that the actions of Jamieson
& Barttelot destroyed all confidance
Jamieson offered money of his own
if Tippu Tib would make an effort
0060<This page is blank in the original manuscript.>
to supply the men, but he said in
that case he would have the sole
direction of the enterprise & command
the Rear Column -

Barttelot said that Stanley was
dead but he wanted to reach Emin
but would take a shorter road
to Wadelai than the path made
by Stanley -

. Barttelots, well known harshness
& inability to deal with blacks, all
prevented the recruitment of men
& the fulfillment of Tippu Tib's
promise to Stanley -

0062<This page is blank in the original manuscript.>

Troup did all he could to
alleviate the sufferings of the Zanzabaris
& protested against Barttelots inhuman
conduct - but he was confined to
his bed by severe sickness and
Barttelot ordered that none of the
Zanzibaris were to visit his hut -

. Bonny also made a protest &
in one occassion the Major ordered
the Londanese to arrest Bonny
for insubordination he having
prevented Barttelot by force
from striking someone; But
the Londanese did not obey so Bonny
threatened to defend themselves -

0064<This page is blank in the original manuscript.>


The above narration is supplied
by Saleh Bin Osman, Mr Stanley's
Zanzibari servant, he tells his story
of what he learned, concerning these
events, from Zanzibaris, Arabs
Manyemas, & Londanese who
witnessed the different events enumerated

I have carefully translated from Ki-Swahili
Saleh's words & do hereby solemnly
declare that I have truthfully
worded all he said

                    Nov 12. 90.

              New York

                    E. J Glave.


  John B. Ritche
  J B Pond

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Item Details

Author(s) & contributor(s): Saleh Bin Osman; Edward J. Glave

Date(s): 12 November 1890

Form & transmission history: Testimony in manuscript form, as translated and written down by a British explorer.

Object description: Text on loose beige pages with minor tears and alternating blank pages, with one hand in brown ink.

Repository: Smithsonian Institution. Libraries. Joseph F. Cullman 3rd Library of Natural History (Washington, D.C., United States)

Shelfmark / Identifier: M055

Digital edition & date: One More Voice, 2020

Critical editing & encoding: Anne Martin, Heather F. Ball, Adrian S. Wisnicki

Cite this digital edition (MLA): Saleh Bin Osman; Edward J. Glave. “Testimony” (12 November 1890). Anne Martin, Heather F. Ball, Adrian S. Wisnicki, eds. One More Voice, site launch edition, 2020, https://onemorevoice.org/html/transcriptions/liv_012056_TEI.html.

Rights: Critically-edited text copyright One More Voice. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

Explore complete/original item: Livingstone Online

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